By A. Denpok. Houston Baptist University.
Furthermore discount diclofenac gel 20 gm amex, as an incidental advantage generic 20 gm diclofenac gel with visa, nucleotide scanning has been known to reveal extra-abdominal infections such as pneumonia and cellulitis that might imitate tertiary peritonitis (5). Other studies, such as plain film, are impaired by the nonspecific finding of intra-peritoneal free air and other features that might normally be expected in the postoperative patient (6). Microbiology and Pathogenesis The flora of tertiary peritonitis is different from that of secondary peritonitis. Whereas a culture of secondary peritonitis might produce a predominance of Escherichia coli, streptococci, and bacteroides—all normal gut flora—tertiary peritonitis is more apt to culture Pseudomonas, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, and Candida (7,8). Some theorize that disease begins when the gut is weakened by surgical manipulation, hypoperfusion, antibiotic elimination of normal gut flora, and a lack of enteral feeding, thereby creating an opportunity for selected resistant native bacteria to translocate across the mucosal border (9). Therefore, empiric antibiotic therapy should be broadly launched to cover the wide range of likely organisms, and later targeted to the specific determined pathogen and sensitivity. Appropriate first agents include, among others, carbapenems or the anti-pseudomonal penicillins, or a regimen of aminoglycosides with either clindamycin or metronidazole for the penicillin-allergic patient (6). Percutaneous drainage is not without its inconveniences: complications such as fistulas, cellulitis, and obstructed, displaced, or prematurely removed drains occur in 20% to 40% of 262 Wilson patients (10,11). Abscesses involving the appendix, liver or biliary tract, and colon or rectum were also found to be particularly responsive at rates of 95%, 85%, and 78%, respectively, although pancreatic abscesses and those involving yeast were correlated with poor outcomes by this treatment method (10). Data is far from optimal, as these critically ill patients cannot ethically be randomized to different treatment groups. However, it would appear at this time that these strategies still are associated with a high mortality of around 42% (12,13). A study by Schein found a particularly high mortality of 55% in the specific subgroup of diffuse postoperative peritonitis treated by planned relaparotomy, with or without open management. Furthermore, Schein went on to state that open management was associated with over twice the mortality of closed: 58% versus 24% (14). Although necessary flaws in study design make it difficult to say whether these approaches offer an advantage over the more traditional ones, it is nevertheless clear that they are far from ideal. The hurdles in addressing the challenge of tertiary peritonitis have led to exploration of potential future therapies. Some are in keeping with traditional surgical/mechanical means: Case studies have reported success of laparoscopy, even in the face of diffuse peritonitis and multiple abscesses (15). Other concepts favor a medicine-based approach, rooted in emerging ideas on the disease’s basic pathology. As it is believed that bacteria migrate out of the intestinal tract secondary to mucosal ischemia and permeability, strategies that support the mucosa, such as early postoperative enteral feeding or selective elimination of endogenous pathogenic bacteria, have each been tried with mixed results. Likewise, it has been argued that the progression from secondary to tertiary peritonitis represents a crippling of the body’s immune system; in support of this belief, granulocyte colony–stimulating factor and interferon-c have each produced limited success in small patient groups, and successfully treated individuals all demonstrated some recovery of immune cell functioning. Another postulate is that a relative lack of corticosteroid exists to fulfill the demands of extreme stress, and it has been suggested that supplying some patients with stress doses of hydrocortisone can improve the vascular effects in early sepsis. Modulation of the inflammatory cascade with activated protein C continues to be investigated, including the associated risk of bleeding. Finally, some researchers have examined the possibility that alleviating the hyper-catabolic state of patients with tertiary peritonitis might decrease mortality. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 have both been tried with intermittent positive and negative outcomes (9). Although clindamycin, ampicillin, and the third-generation cephalosporins such as ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime are the most commonly associated antimicrobials, the newer, broader spectrum quinolones, such as gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin, can also increase risk, and in fact any antibiotic, including, surprisingly, metronidazole and vancomycin, may rarely predispose patients to the disease. Sigmoidoscopy, when performed in equivocal cases, will show whitish or yellowish pseudomembranes overlying the mucosa in 41% of cases, and radiologic studies, although nonspecific, will often show signs of inflammation such as cecal dilatation, air–fluid levels, and mucosal thumbprinting. Even though diagnosis is often confirmed using the enzyme-linked immunoassay, it is worth bearing in mind that these tests are only about 85% sensitive. For moderate-to-severe cases, metronidazole, either orally or intravenously, is the first line of therapy. In the 20% to 30% of patients who will relapse, a second course of metronidazole is recommended, followed by vancomycin enema for persistent symptomatic infection. Other treatments, such as intravenous immunoglobulin, cholestyramine that binds the bacterial toxin, and probiotics such as Lactobacillus, the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii, and even donor feces or “stool transplantations” to seed the regrowth of normal gut flora, have all been tried with success but as yet are not commonly done. Acalculous Cholecystitis Acalculous cholecystitis, with its difficulty in diagnosis and attendant high mortality, should be a consideration in jaundiced postoperative patients. With this in mind, physicians caring for high-risk populations should carefully evaluate the signs and symptoms of this disease, and even a low level of clinical suspicion should prompt more thorough investigation. Risk Factors and Pathophysiology Although the pathogenesis of acalculous cholecystitis has not been entirely elucidated, it is apparent that the critically ill patient is particularly prone. One patient has been reported in the literature with acalculous cholecystitis secondary to a diaphragmatic hernia mechanically obstructing the cystic duct (19). Given these associations, it is likely that there are multiple triggering factors contributing to a common disease state. An experimental form of the disease is produced by a combination of decreased blood flow to the gallbladder, cystic duct obstruction, and bile concentration (21).
Her conjunctiva are pink and no scleral icterus is examination and reﬂexes are normal generic 20gm diclofenac gel fast delivery. The oropharynx shows a single 2-mm aphthous ul- remarkable except for a negative antinuclear antibody ceration on the buccal mucosa order 20gm diclofenac gel visa. All the following clinical condi- The patient is incapable of closing her hands tightly. In addi- tions may occur in polymyositis except tion, there is warmth and a possible effusion in the right knee and tenderness with range of motion in the left knee. A 64-year-old man with congestive heart failure pre- Mean corpuscular hemoglobin count 32 g/dL sents to the emergency room complaining of acute onset of Platelet 98,000/mL severe pain in his right foot. The pain began during the night The differential is 80% polymorphonuclear cells, 12% lym- and awoke him from a deep sleep. He reports the pain to be phocytes, 7% monocytes, 1% eosinophils, and 1% basophils. She carial lesions, which occasionally leave a residual discol- denies any prior similar episodes. The sedimentation ually active and estimates her last sexual activity to be 8 rate now is 85 mm/h. She has a history of seasonal the correct diagnosis in this case would be rhinitis, but is taking no medications currently. Arthrocentesis is The pain is worse in the morning and when the patient is performed and is consistent with inﬂammatory arthritis barefoot. On examination, pain can be elicited with pal- without crystals or organisms seen on Gram stain. Which of the fol- cal probes for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia lowing is required to make a deﬁnitive diagnosis of trachomatis are negative. Chronic joint symptoms affect 15% of individuals, cine bone scan and recurrences of the acute syndrome may occur. Reactive arthritis is self-limited and should be ex- demonstrating heel spur pected to resolve spontaneously over the next 2 weeks. Which of the following ﬁndings on joint aspiration comes following an initial episode of reactive arthritis. A 54-year-old female with rheumatoid arthritis is treated with inﬂiximab for refractory disease. Fluid, clear and viscous; white blood cell count, 400/ lowing are potential side effects of this treatment except µL; crystals, rhomboidal and weakly positively bire- fringent A. A 26-year-old man presents with severe bilateral 12,000/µL; crystals, needle-like and strongly nega- pain in his hands, ankles, knees, and elbows. He is recov- tively birefringent ering from a sore throat and has had recent fevers to E. Social history is notable for recent unprotected 4800/µL; crystals, rhomboidal and weakly positively receptive oral intercourse with a man ~1 week ago. Physi- birefringent cal examination reveals a well-developed man in moderate discomfort. A 45-year-old woman presents to the emergency with pustular exudates on his tonsils. He has tender ante- room for evaluation of fatigue, fever, and acute onset of rior cervical lymphadenopathy. His cardiac examination joint pain and swelling of the right knee, left ankle, and is notable for a normal S1 and S2 and a soft ejection mur- right second toe. He has no rash, and genital examination is tion as the symptoms resolved spontaneously over 48 h. Three days ago, she developed a feeling of malaise sophalangeal joints are red, warm, and boggy with ten- with fevers and pain in her right second toe. His erythrocyte sedimentation recently noticed stiffness and pain in her hips, making it rate is 85 mm/h and C-reactive protein is 11 mg/dL. Acute rheumatic fever carotid bruits present, but palpation of the temporal ar- C. Which rent treatment consists of azathioprine 75 mg/d and of the following is the next most important step in the prednisone 5 mg/d. Warn her that exacerbations can occur in the ﬁrst time to obtain full anticoagulation. A patient presents with 3 weeks of pain in the lower lipin antibodies are detected in her serum. Stop the prednisone just before she attempts to be- of spine pathology except come pregnant. A 64-year-old man with coronary artery disease and following treatments has been shown to improve symp- atrial ﬁbrillation is referred for evaluation of fevers, ar- toms the best at this stage of the illness? Antibodies directed against which of room for an episode of vision loss in her right eye.
Global metabolic proﬁling (metabonomics/metabolomics) has shown particular promise in the area of toxicology and drug development purchase diclofenac gel 20gm on-line. A metabolic proﬁle need not be a comprehensive survey of composition generic 20 gm diclofenac gel visa, nor need it be completely resolved and assigned, although these are all desirable attributes. For the proﬁle to be useful across a range of problems, however, it must be amenable to quantitative interpreta- tion and it should be relatively unbiased in its scope. A further requirement for the Universal Free E-Book Store 176 7 Role of Metabolomics in Personalized Medicine platform used to generate proﬁles is that the analytical variation introduced postcol- lection be less than the typical variation in the normal population of interest, so as not to reduce signiﬁcantly the opportunity to detect treatment/group-related differ- ences. Fulﬁlling this condition is very dependent on the actual system and question in hand and is probably best tested in each new application. In both preclinical screening and mechanistic exploration, metabolic proﬁling can offer rapid, noninvasive toxicological information that is robust and reproduc- ible, with little or no added technical resources to existing studies in drug metabo- lism and toxicity. Extended into the assessment of efﬁcacy and toxicity in the clinic, metabonomics may prove crucial in making personalized therapy and pharmacoge- nomics a reality. The company believes that it is possible to proﬁle metabolic diseases before symptoms appear. Metabonomic testing is important in obesity/metabolic syndromes, in which several metabolic pathways interact to produce symptoms and could be an important guide to select diets and exercise programs tailored to metabolic states. It is considered desirable to establish a human “metabonome” parallel to human genome and proteome but it will be a formidable undertaking requiring analysis of at least half a million people. Some projects are examining metabonomic patterns in series of patients with metabolic syndromes and comparing them with normal peo- ple. Other studies are examining how a person’s unique metabonomic proﬁle can be used as a guide to personalize diet and exercise regimens for obesity. It is now possible to measure hundreds or thousands of metabolites in small samples of biological ﬂuids or tissues. This enables assessment of the metabolic component of nutritional phenotypes and will enable individualized dietary recom- mendations. The relation between diet and metabolomic proﬁles as well as between those proﬁles and health and disease needs to be established. Appropriate technolo- gies should be developed and that metabolic databases are constructed with the right inputs and organization. Moreover, social implications of these advances and plan for their appropriate utilization should be considered. Large-scale human metabolomics studies: a strategy for data (pre-) processing and validation. Pharmacometabonomic identiﬁcation of a signiﬁcant host-microbiome metabolic interaction affecting human drug metabolism. Universal Free E-Book Store References 177 Gieger C, Geistlinger L, Altmaier E, et al. Genetics meets metabolomics: a genome-wide associa- tion study of metabolite proﬁles in human serum. Universal Free E-Book Store Chapter 8 Non-genomic Factors in the Development of Personalized Medicine Introduction Besides genomics other omics, epigenomic and non-genomic factors and biotechnologies have contributed to the development of personalized medicine. Although personalized medicine is considered to be mostly based on pharma- cogenomics, a number of other factors that vary among individuals and should be considered are: • Identiﬁcation of subpopulation of patients best suited for an existing drug • New drug design for a speciﬁc sub-population of patients • Use of an individual patient’s cells or tissues for biological therapies • Cytomics: analysis of disease at single cell level. Among biotechnologies, nanobiotechnology has made important contributions to the development of personalized medicine. They are attributed to circadian rhythms, which are endogenous self-sustained oscillations with a period of ~24 h. These rhythms persist under constant environmental conditions, demonstrating their endogenous nature. Several clock genes and clock-controlled tran- scription factors regulate, at least in part, gene expression in central and/or periph- eral clocks. The rhythms of disease and pharmacology can be taken into account to modulate treatment over the 24-h period, i. The term “chronopharmacology” is applied to variations in the effect of drugs according to the time of their adminis- tration during the day. Most of these genes were previously recognized clock genes that are responsible for the keeping the body’s internal daily rhythm. Universal Free E-Book Store Environmental Factors in Disease 181 The body needs a completely different set of genetic programs to perform activities than it does for sleep and restoration. The knowledge of expression of gene relevant to circadian rhythms might enable identiﬁcation of drugs whose efﬁcacy and side effects are most likely to be affected by time of administration. The antihypertensive drug Diovan and Ritalin used for attention deﬁcit hyperactivity disorder have half-lives of <6 h, which means that if they are administered at the wrong time, they might break down before having a chance to fully engage with their targets. The timing of drug administration could also explain why some persons in clinical trials seem to respond to a medication while others do not. It should be noted that most studies on mice are performed dur- ing the day, when the animals should be asleep.
Urine examination may show the following : • Polyuria especially nocturia and anuria in terminal cases generic diclofenac gel 20gm free shipping. Blood Changes: There is an increase in blood urea discount diclofenac gel 20gm otc, creatinine and uric acid levels, metabolic acidosis, normochromic normocytic anaemia, hyperkalaemia, and hyperphosphataemia. Serum calcium may be normal or low in early phases, but it becomes high in stage of tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Renal biopsy is indicated in cases with average kidney size and unknown etiology of uraemia. History: A long history of renal disease suggests chronicity while absent previous history suggests acute renal failure. Kidney size as detected by ultrasonography: A small atrophic kidney favours the diagnosis of chronic renal failure, while a normal sized kidneys is more in favour of acute renal failure. Magnitude of the increase in serum creatinine in relation to the presenting symptoms: High serum creatinine with minimal symptoms is in favour of chronic renal disease, while relatively low serum creatinine with severe symptoms is in favour of acute renal disease. Renal biopsy: extensive renal interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy in renal biopsy are features of chronic cases. Renal causes factors such as: • Active glomerular disease • Active tubulo-interstitial disease • Pyelonephritis c. Postrenal factors: Causing obstruction of urine flow from both kidneys such as: • Stone • Stricture ureters • Enlarged prostate • Bladder neck obstruction Step 3. Extra 200 ml fluid should be added in febrile patient for every one degree centigrade increase in the body temperature. Treatment of Bone disease: • Phosphate Binders such as aluminium hydroxide, magnesium oxide and calcium carbonate or acetate which combine with phosphorus in the gut and are excreted with the stool. Calcium containing compounds are better than aluminium and magnesium salts which could be dangerous on long term use. Three glands and part of the fourth are removed and the remaining is implanted subcutaneously. The first line of treatment is by giving proper nutrition, iron, folic acid, and vitamins especially B12. Failure to respond may indicate repeated blood transfusion or treatment with recombinant human Erythropoietin. Failure of conservative treatment to provide the patient with a reasonable quality of life is an indication for renal replacement therapy, i. This is carried out via vascular access where the blood is pumped by a haemodialysis machine into the dialyzer then the blood returns back filtered to the patients circulation (Fig. Complications: (I) Common complications: (A) Hypotension: This is the commonest complication and may be due to: - High ultrafiltration rate - Dialysis solution sodium level is too low - Acetate-containing dialysis solution - Dialysis solution is too warm - Food ingestion (splanchnic vasodilatation) - Autonomic neuropathy (e. Early manifestations include headache, nausea, vomiting, convulsions and may be coma. Treatment: • Stop dialysis immediately • Antihistaminics • Steroids Type B (Non specific type): The patients may complain of back pain or chest pain. Etiology: Complement activation Treatment: No specific treatment (C) Arrhythmia: Arrhythmias during dialysis are common especially in patients receiving digitalis (D) Cardiac tamponade: Unexpected or recurrent hypotension during dialysis may be a sign of pericardial effusion or impending tamponade. This is carried out via a peritoneal catheter which is inserted into the peritoneal cavity for infusion of the dialysate which is left to dwell then; drained out via the catheter (Fig. This is the new trend nowadays, but it is limited because of the high cost of the cycler. Specific indications for peritoneal dialysis include the following: 1- Infant and very young children 2- End stage renal failure patients with cardiovascular or haemodynamic instability. Principle: - Kidney transplantation is performed by doing a unilateral nephrectomy for the donor to be implanted into the patient with end stage renal disease "The recipient". Indications: Patients with end stage renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy. Contraindications: 1- Patient refusal 2- Psychosis 3- Age more than 60 years (relative) 4- Recurrent disease, if the original kidney disease that caused renal failure can recur in the transplanted kidney and destroy it e. Complications after kidney transplantation: 1- Rejections: • Hyperacute: usually occurs Immediately postoperative. Azathioprine: Bone marrow depression and hepatic dysfunction 3- Cyclosporine: Nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, hypertension and D. Tubulointerstitial Nephritis: • Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis • Chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis • Analgesic Nephropathy • Reflux Nephropathy • Pyelonephritis Renal Glycosuria Normally glucose does not appear in the urine until plasma concentration reaches up to 180 mg/dl (10 mmol/L). Maximum glucose excretion is reached at plasma concentration of 270 mg/dl (15 mmol/L). Renal glucosuria means the detection of glucose in urine while plasma glucose is less than 180 mg/dl (i. There are two types of renal glycosuria, type A in which both renal threshold and Tm are reduced; and type B in which renal threshold is decreased but Tm is not.