By C. Masil. Spelman College.
Eating behavior and adherence to dietary prescriptions in obese adult subjects treated with 5-hydroxytryptophan quality 600 mg zyvox. Efﬁcacy of a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid in weight control zyvox 600mg. Enhanced thermogenesis and diminished deposition of fat in response to overfeeding with diet containing medium chain triglyceride. Greater rise in fat oxidation with medium-chain triglyceride consumption relative to long-chain triglyceride is associated with lower initial body weight and greater loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2003; 27: 1565–1571. Medium-chain triglycerides increase energy expenditure and decrease adiposity in overweight men. Differential rates of conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in acne and normal human skin—a possible pathogenic factor in acne. The familial risk of adult acne: a comparison between ﬁrst-degree relatives of affected and unaffected individuals. Role of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, hyperglycaemic food and milk consumption in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Some observations on the sugar metabolism in acne vulgaris, and its treatment by insulin. Nutrition-endocrine interactions: induction of reciprocal changes in the delta 4–5 alpha-reduction of testosterone and the cytochrome P-450-dependent oxidation of estradiol by dietary macronutrients in man. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1983; 80: 7646–7649. Beneﬁcial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly patients. Efﬁcacy and safety study of two zinc gluconate regimens in the treatment of inﬂammatory acne. The effect of zinc on the 5-alpha-reduction of testosterone by the hyperplastic human prostate gland. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity in acne vulgaris and the effect of selenium and vitamin E treatment. A comparative study of tea-tree oil versus benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of acne. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and its therapeutic role in hyperpigmentary disorders and acne. Exocrine pancreatic function and fat malabsorption in human immunodeﬁciency virus-infected patients. Study of the role of vitamin B12 and folinic acid supplementation in preventing hemologic toxicity of zidovudine. Thiamine disulﬁde as a potent inhibitor of human immunodeﬁciency virus (type-1) production. Low serum cobalamin levels occur frequently in the acquired immune deﬁciency syndrome and related disorders. Severe deﬁciency of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human immunodeﬁciency virus infection: association with immunological hyperactivity and only minor changes in calcium homeostasis. Suppression of human immunodeﬁciency virus type 1 viral load with selenium supplementation: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 1997; 15: 370–374. Therapeutic application of zinc in human immunodeﬁciency virus against opportunistic infections. Studies on lipoate effects on blood redox state in human immunodeﬁciency virus infected patients. Carnitine in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Protective actions of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine on the neurotoxicity evoked by mitochondrial uncoupling or inhibitors. Detecting life-threatening lactic acidosis related to nucleoside-analog treatment of human immunodeﬁciency virus-infected patients, and treatment with L-carnitine. Three inhibitors of human type 1 immunodeﬁciency virus: long terminal repeat, directed gene expression, and virus replication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1993; 90: 1839–1841. Comparison of systemic availability of curcumin with that of curcumin formulated with phosphatidylcholine. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2001; 40: 83–90. The severity of liver ﬁbrosis is associated with high leptin levels in chronic hepatitis C. Effects of zinc deﬁciency on ethanol metabolism and alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1977; 154: 146–150.
If the level is between 40 and 50 discount zyvox 600mg amex, the person is given the option of having the breath sample reading replaced by a specimen of blood or urine generic 600 mg zyvox amex, but it is for the police officer to decide which, in accordance with Section 7. Different rules and regulations, but with much the same intent, apply in other countries. Blood Samples It is wise to have a standardized routine for this procedure, if only to help prevent some of the technical defenses that are frequently raised in court. Regardless of whether or not a kit is used, appropriate chain of custody forms must be completed, and the record must reflect that alcohol-containing swabs were not used to cleanse the skin (actually, studies have shown that alcohol swabs contribute negligibly to the final result, but the issue is routinely raised in court) (37). The police officer should identify the doctor to the person, and the doctor should obtain witnessed informed consent. The physician must then determine whether there are any medical reasons why a sample of blood cannot be taken. The sample should be divided equally between the two bottles and shaken to dis- 366 Wall and Karch perse the preservative (an additional needle through the rubber membrane helps to equalize the pressure). The bottles should be labeled and placed in the secure containers and caps applied. The driver is allowed to retain one sample, which is placed in an envelope and sealed. Under British law, a forensic physician may make up to three unsuccessful attempts at taking blood before the driver can reasonably refuse to give blood on grounds that the defendant has lost confidence in the doctor. Complex Defenses Numerous technical defenses have been advocated over the years, and doctors should be aware of the most common. In the United States, refusal leads to automatic license suspension and, in some states, may actually constitute a separate crime; police are under an obligation to ensure that drivers are made aware of that. The motorist must understand the manda- tory warning of prosecution if a specimen is not produced. Failure to under- stand, at least in the United Kingdom, is a reasonable excuse for the nonprovision of a sample (38). The decision regarding whether there is a medi- cal reason not to supply a sample of breath is left to the police officer and is summarized in case law. There is no provision or requirement at that stage for a doctor to be summoned or to give an opinion. Examples of medically acceptable reasons include mouth, lip, or facial injury; tracheotomy; rib injury; and neurological problems. Traffic Medicine 367 Many cases have been challenged on the basis that the person was unable to blow into the intoximeter because of respiratory problems. This article was particularly useful because most forensic physicians do not have access to spirometry but do have access to a simple peak flow reading in the custody situation. A more recent study (45) on the new Lion Intoxilyzer 6000 concluded that some subjects with lung diseases may have difficulty in providing evi- dential breath samples. However, these were subjects who would generally have been considered to have severe lung diseases. A recent fashionable defense is that the presence of a metal stud through a hole pierced in the tongue invalidates the breath alcohol test because of the prohibition against foreign substances in the mouth and because of the poten- tial for the jewelery to retain alcohol and interfere with the breath test. How- ever, experimental work has shown that the rates of elimination of mouth alcohol were no different in subjects with a tongue stud as opposed to controls and that for the purposes of breath alcohol testing, oral jewelery should be treated the same as metallic dental work and left in place without affecting the outcome of the breath test (46). Failure to Provide a Sample of Blood First, there must be a definite request to provide a sample of blood. Where the sample of blood is taken from is solely the choice of the forensic physician (or, in the United States, the emergency room physician). In Solesbury v Pugh (48), the defendant was found guilty of failing to supply a specimen as he would only allow a sample to be taken from his big toe, which the doctor was not prepared to do. In the United Kingdom, if the patient’s own doctor and forensic physi- cian are both present, the person can choose which doctor takes the sample. Similar rules apply in the United States, where statutes generally spell out that financial responsibility for such services rests with the driver and not the state. In the United Kingdom, if a blood sample is provided but the doc- tor spills the sample, then the law has been complied with on the basis that removal of the syringe from the vein by the doctor completes the provision of the specimen by the defendant (50). In the United Kingdom, a minimum of 2 mL of blood is required (the laboratory requires a minimum of 1 mL for analysis) for an adequate sample (51). If less than this is obtained, the sample should be discarded and another one attempted or the police officer advised that there is a medical reason why a sample of blood should not be provided and the urine option can then be selected. In the early 1980s, one police force purchased and used swabs containing alcohol with the result that numerous convictions were later overturned (52). Probably the most common defense for failure to provide a sample of blood is that of needle phobia. If this is alleged, a full medical history should be obtained and enquiry made of whether the person has had blood tests before, whether ears or other parts of the body have been pierced, or whether there have been foreign travel immunizations or any other medical or dental procedure undertaken in which an injection may have been administered. British appellate judges (53) have stated that “no fear short of phobia recognized by medical science to be as strong and as inhibiting as, for instance, claustrophobia can be allowed to excuse failure to provide a specimen for a laboratory test, and in most if not all cases where the fear of providing it is claimed to be invincible, the claim will have to be supported by medical evidence.
Te health care challenge: acknowledging disparity zyvox 600mg on-line, confronting discrimination purchase 600mg zyvox visa, and ensuring equality. Part of one volume of a report Te health care challenge: acknowledging disparity, confronting discrimination, and ensuring equality. Part of a report in language other than English Rapport annuel de gestion [Annual administrative report]. Chapitre 2, Les activites scientifques en 2002-2003 [Chapter 2, Scientifc activities in 2002-2003]; p. Entire Dissertations and T eses • Sample Citation and Introduction • Citation Rules with Examples • Examples B. Parts of Dissertations and T eses • Sample Citation and Introduction • Citation Rules with Examples • Examples A. Citations to dissertations and theses are similar to the standard book, with the following important points: • With rare exceptions, dissertations have only one author. When this occurs, obtain the city name from another source and place it in square brackets. Te back of the title page, called the verso page, and the cover are additional sources of authoritative information not found on the title page. Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Dissertations and Theses Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R afer the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O afer the name means it is optional. Author (R) | Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Pagination (O) | Physical Description (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O) Author for a Dissertation or Thesis (required) General Rules for Author • List names in the order they appear in the text • Enter surname (family or last name) frst for each author • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese). Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another alphabet. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Separate the surname from the given name or initials by a comma; follow initials with a period; separate successive names by a semicolon. Dissertation or thesis with authors showing designations of rank within the family Title for a Dissertation or Thesis (required) General Rules for Title • Enter the title of a dissertation or thesis as it appears in the original document and in the original language • Capitalize only the frst word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets • End a title with a period unless a question mark or exclamation point already ends it or a Content Type or Type of Medium follows it, then end with a space Specific Rules for Title • Titles not in English • Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character 462 Citing Medicine Box 8. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Dissertation or thesis with titles containing a chemical formula, Greek letter, or other special characters 8. Musical pathology in the nineteenth century: Richard Wagner and degeneration [dissertation]. Parametros predictivos de complicaciones macroangiopaticos en la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 que precisa insulinoterapia [Predictive parameters for macroangiopathy complications in Type 2 diabetes which requires insulin] [dissertation]. Dissertation or thesis in a microform Type of Medium for a Dissertation or Thesis (required) General Rules for Type of Medium • Indicate the specifc type of medium (microfche, ultrafche, microflm, microcard, etc. Do rural Medicare patients have diferent post-acute service patterns than their non-rural counterparts? Der Anatom Eduard Jacobshagen (1886-1967) [Te anatomist Eduard Jacobshagen (1886-1967)] [dissertation on microfche]. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Dissertation or thesis with place of publication not found on title page Publisher for a Dissertation or Thesis (required) General Rules for Publisher • Te publisher is the university or other institution granting the degree • Record the name of the institution as it appears in the publication, using whatever capitalization and punctuation is found there • Abbreviate well-known words in institutional names, such as Univ. If you abbreviate a word in one reference in a list of references, abbreviate the same word in all references. Place all translated publisher names in square brackets unless the translation is given in the publication. Akita (Japan): Akita Daigaku; or Akita (Japan): [Akita University]; • Ignore diacritics, accents, and special characters in names. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Rousse (Bulgaria): Rusenski Universitet [Rousse University]; • If the name of a division of other part of an organization is included in the publisher information, give the names in hierarchical order from highest to lowest Valencia (Spain): Universidade de Valencia, Instituto de Historia de la Ciencia y Documentacion Lopez Pinero; • As an option, you may translate all publisher names not in English. Place all translated publisher names in square brackets unless the translation is given in the publication. Dissertation or thesis publisher with subsidiary part included 472 Citing Medicine 13. Dissertation or thesis issued by other than a university Date of Publication for a Dissertation or Thesis (required) General Rules for Date of Publication • Always give the year of publication, i.
Antioxidant may play a major role in the prevention of diseases generic zyvox 600mg with visa, including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases buy 600mg zyvox with mastercard, some forms of cancer and effective to be long life and anti-aging. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant active principle isolated from Thea sinensis Linn. The isolated compounds were identified by melting point, optical rotation, Thin Layer chromatographic. Ultra violet spectroscopic, Fourier transforms infrared 1 spectroscopic, Mass spectroscopic and H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic methods. Percent inhibition of autoxidative activity of caffeine, catechin and epicatechin were 78. Thus, it was concluded that caffeine, catechin and epicatechin were antioxidative active principle and catechin was the most potent natural antioxidant. The positive control and negative control used in this study being cimetidine (200mg/kg) and water respectively. The ulcerogenic agent, aspirin as well as the test and control materials were administered by oral route to the test subjects in accordance with the study schedule. The plan of the study comprised two parts, the protective effect and healing effect on aspirin-induced gastric ulcerations. The rats were fasted for 48hour after the last does of extract, 600mg/kg body weight of aspirin was given by oral route as an ulcerogenic agent. After leaving for 4hours which was the time required producing proper gastric ulcerations, the animals were sacrificed and stomachs were opened cut along greater curvature to examine by using magnifying glass. Ulcers were measured using different parameters such as total length, numbers of ulcers and numbers of haemorrhagas. Significant effect of the extract on the ulcers regarding above parameters was observed. The procedures as above were repeated for positive and negative control agents-cimetidine and water. The anti-peptic ulcer activity of extract was comparable to that of standard drug, cimetidine. For the healing effect of extract on aspirin- induced gastric ulcerations in rats, only the dose of extract, found to be optimal in the first part, was selected and employed. It was different for the first as the extract was given after the gastric ulcers had been induced by the ulcerogenic agent, aspirin. The extract was given two times, the first after 4hours and the second; 20hours after aspirin had been administered. As before, cimetidine (200gm/kg) and water used as the positive and negative controls. The plant extract was found to have significant anti-peptic ulcer activity as in the previous part of the study. Consequently, the results in the first part seggested the protective effect and that in the second part suggested the healing effect of the plant extract on the peptic ulcerations induced by aspirin. This protective or healing effect is reflected by whether the extract was given prior to after the administration of the ulcerogenic agent, aspirin. The present study was done to evaluate the anti- peptic ulcer activity of ethanolic extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn. The phytochemical analysis was done for both ethanolic extract and dried powder of rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn. The ethanolic extract and dried powder contained glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloid, steroids/triterpene, polyphenol, tanninoids, saponin and reducing sugar. The anti-peptic ulcer effect of extract was studied on albino rats of both sexes weighing 180 to 200gm. Aspirin was used as ulcerogenic agent and ranitidine was used as positive control drug. Group 3 to Group 6 served as extract treated group, which received four different doses of extract 0. One hour after giving the test agents, 600mg/kg body weight of aspirin was given as ulcerogenic agent. The different parameters such as total number of ulcers, total length of ulcers and number of hemorrhages were measured. It was found that increasing dose of the extract caused increasing protective effect. The difference from the study of protective effect was that the same dose of ulcerogenic agent aspirin was given first to all groups. The operative procedure, measured parameters and measuring methods were same as the first part of the study. In conclusion, this study proved scientifically that 95% ethanolic extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn.